Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy
This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology andÂ its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics.
Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
A unique guide to the application and theory of photothermal spectroscopy.<br> <br> This book debunks the myth that photothermal spectroscopy is too complicated for practical application to chemical analysis, and demonstrates the advantages this technique has over conventional spectroscopy in facilitating extremely sensitive measurements of optical absorption in homogeneous media. The book covers the subject from the ground up, lists all practical considerations needed to obtain accurate results, and provides a working knowledge of the various methods in use--including photo acoustics and photopyroelectric techniques.<br> <br> Bringing together a wealth of information that has been scattered throughout the professional literature, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis covers methods and information that should be known to every analytical chemist, including: <br> * Descriptions of photothermal spectroscopy using a consistent mathematical language <br> * Helpful examples from the literature of analytical applications and current research <br> * Illustrations of all important points, consistent equations, and numerous original figures <br> * A discussion of laser technology and how it is used to obtain accurate results from extremely small samples of a few molecules <br> * Everything spectroscopists need to know to construct their own apparatus and use it to conduct successful experiments <br> * Tips on how to interpret experimental results effectively when using nonlinear processes and in many other situations in photothermal spectroscopy <br> * Considerations for further study of heterogeneous sample analysis<br> * Unified nomenclature of the patchwork of terms used by researchers in analytical and physical chemistry, physics, and optical engineering <br> * Equations that are derived with the aid of a symbolic language processor to ensure correct results<br> <br> <br> Photothermal spectroscopy has seen major advances since the advent of laser technology twenty-five years ago. It is now possible, using a laser's coherent and powerful output, to obtain extremely sensitive measurements of optical absorption that exceed those of mass spectroscopy by two or three times, and produce accurate results from only a few molecules.<br> <br> Focusing on samples in homogeneous media, this book provides a unique guide--incorporating theory and application--to all available photothermal spectroscopy techniques for chemical and material analysis. It uses a systematic approach in its comprehensive treatment of the theory, and covers all the necessary background material, from laser optics to fluid dynamics.<br> <br> This accessible text describes the various processes used to detect thermal perturbation of a sample, ranging from optical excitation to nonlinear processes, and covers all optical principles necessary to understand photothermal spectroscopy. When dealing with hydrodynamic equations that govern energy transfer in the sample matrix, it provides an original impulse-response approach. In addition, the book explains how to construct the apparatus one needs to conduct successful photothermal experiments, since commercial equipment is not available as in conventional spectrophotometry.<br> <br> Throughout, this book draws on information from a wide range of fields, including analytical spectroscopy, measurement physics, physical optics, and chemical dynamics. Providing clear explanations at every turn, the author demonstrates a complete understanding of the theory and applications as a firm basis for the correct interpretation of experimental results.<br> <br> For analytical chemists, as well as for students at the graduate level, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis is an unmatched resource that develops a consistent mathematical basis for signal description, consolidates previous theories, and provides invaluable insight into laser technology.
This book explores the role of photographs in newspapers and online news, analyzing how meanings are made in images and exploring text-image relations, illustrated with authentic news stories from both print and online news outlets.
The problem of asymptotic regulation of the output of a dynamical system plays a central role in control theory. An important variant of this problem is the output regulation problem, which can be used in such areas as set-point control, tracking reference signals and rejecting disturbances generated by an external system, controlled synchronization of dynamical systems, and observer design for autonomous systems. This book is one of the first systematic studies on the nonlinear output regulation problem that embraces both the local and global solvability analysis, covering such aspects as solvability conditions, controller design, and practical implementation issues.
The book opens with the development of the mathematical apparatus of convergent systemsa "very useful for studying nonlinear control systemsa "laying the foundation for most of the results presented in the work. The study then proceeds to a new problem statementa "the so-called uniform output regulation problem. A comprehensive solvability analysis of this problem is provided in the next part of the work. Based on the solvability analysis, constructive controller design methods for the global uniform output regulation problem are presented for various classes of nonlinear systems.
In an attempt to bridge the gap between theory and practice, the authors conclude with a presentation of an experimental case study. The experimenta "one of the first in the field of nonlinear output regulationa "deals with control of a translational oscillator with a rotational actuator, illustrating the applicability of the nonlinear output regulation theory in experiments and raising a number of questions to be addressed in future research.
The scope of questions addressed in the book, the uniformity of their treatment, the novelty of the proposed approach, and the obtained results make this volume unique with respect to other works on the problem of nonlinear output regulation. In addition to being an excellent reference for the uniform output regulation problem, the book has a tutorial value on convergent systems. The work will be of interest to control engineers, theorists, and students, and may be used as a textbook for a graduate course on nonlinear control.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to win your dream job and be the first in line for a promotion.
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