The sampling lattice used to digitize continuous image data is a signi?cant determinant of the quality of the resulting digital image, and therefore, of the e?cacy of its processing. The nature of sampling lattices is intimately tied to the tessellations of the underlying continuous image plane. To allow uniform sampling of arbitrary size images, the lattice needs to correspond to a regular - spatially repeatable - tessellation. Although drawings and paintings from many ancient civilisations made ample use of regular triangular, square and hexagonal tessellations, and Euler later proved that these three are indeed the only three regular planar tessellations possible, sampling along only the square lattice has found use in forming digital images. The reasons for these are varied, including extensibility to higher dimensions, but the literature on the rami?cations of this commitment to the square lattice for the dominant case of planar data is relatively limited. There seems to be neither a book nor a survey paper on the subject of alternatives. This book on hexagonal image processing is therefore quite appropriate. Lee Middleton and Jayanthi Sivaswamy well motivate the need for a c- certedstudyofhexagonallatticeandimageprocessingintermsoftheirknown uses in biological systems, as well as computational and other theoretical and practicaladvantagesthataccruefromthisapproach. Theypresentthestateof the art of hexagonal image processing and a comparative study of processing images sampled using hexagonal and square grids.
Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with an introduction to quantitative evaluation of satellite and aircraft derived remotely retrieved data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same. This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data.
Each chapter covers the pros and cons of digital remotely sensed data, without detailed mathematical treatment of computer based algorithms, but in a manner conductive to an understanding of their capabilities and limitations. Problems conclude each chapter.
Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays. The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications.
The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel binarization in real time. The binary output of the pixel tries to replicate the flickering effect of the insect's eye to detect smallest possible motion based on the change in state. An inbuilt counter counts the changes in states for each row to estimate the direction of the motion. The chip consists of an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies an area of 5 x 4 mm2 and it has been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS process from UMC.
Psychology and Consumer Profiling in the Digital Age is concerned with the use of psychological theories and methods to segment consumers. Historically, as consumer markets have evolved, professional marketers have become more and more interested in how consumers think and behave. As product and services ranges have expanded it has become equally important to know how to establish a niche within a crowded consumer marketplace. While market niches can be defined in part by the specific attributes and features of the brand being offered, these characteristics usually need to resonate with the perceived characteristics of the target consumers. Marketers might initially draw upon consumer demographics and geographical data to differentiate consumers, but such descriptive data cannot explain the reasons why consumers might find a brand appealing or not. This level of understanding requires an alternative approach that is linked more directly to an analysis of consumer psychology. Understanding how consumers choose between different products and services is a crucial part of professional marketing. Targeting brands at the consumers most likely to be interested in them is another critical aspect of business success. Marketers need to know what consumers think about brands, why they like them and what purposes they serve. This means delving into the psychology of the consumer to find ways of differentiating between consumers and matching brands to consumer niches at the level of consumers' relationships with brands. Using psychology to segment consumers has been regarded as a valuable adjunct to standard geo-demographic definitions of market segments. Psychology and Consumer Profiling in the Digital Age examines how this field of 'psychographics' has evolved, the different approaches to psychological segmentation of consumers, the different ways in which it has been applied in consumer marketing settings, and whether psychographics works. It draws upon research from around the world and incorporates its analysis of the use of psychographics with an examination of major shifts in marketing in a digital and global era.
A though-provoking collection of poetry and thoughts as seen through the eyes of the author's depression, with little glimpses of hope.
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